According to the 1993 education law, the education system in Argentina includes: pre-school education for children aged 3-5 years, compulsory 9-year basic education (for children 6-14 years old). The number of students in compulsory schools is 5.153 million (2000). Secondary (“polymodal”) education has a 3 + 2 scheme (the basic cycle of secondary school is 3 years, specialized – 2 years) and includes general secondary and special education. The number of students in secondary educational institutions is 2.744 million people. In 1995, Argentina passed a law on higher education.
In 2000 in Argentina, total education spending was at 4.65% of GDP; enrollment in secondary education 79.6%; enrollment in higher education is 56%.
According to andyeducation, higher education is provided mainly by universities, as well as institutes and higher technical centers. To obtain a university diploma (bachelor’s or master’s degree), students study for 5 years. The total number of students in Argentina is 1.6 million people. (2000). The largest universities are the University of Buenos Aires (founded in 1821, 183,000 students), the National University of Cordoba (founded in 1613, 82,000 students), and the National Technological University in Buenos Aires (founded in 1959, 70,000 students).
Scientific activity is developed mainly within the framework of various types of research institutes. At the same time, more than 50% of research institutes are located in the system of universities, mainly state universities. The largest university research institutes: a center at the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Buenos Aires; center at the Faculty of Medicine of the National University of Córdoba. The largest research centers of government subordination are: the center of the National Atomic Energy Commission; National Institute of Agricultural Technology. There are also private research institutes. The most significant of these is the Torcuato di Tella Institute. Argentina has left a noticeable mark in world science. Among the leading scientists of the 19th-20th centuries. physician L. Agote, zoologist A. Gallardo, physiologist B. A. Usai (Nobel Prize, 1947), biochemist L. F. Leloir (Nobel Prize, 1970), biologist E. De Robertis. Argentine scientists have significant achievements in the field of energy and nuclear research. In the field of social sciences, the most famous Argentine scientist in the world is R. Prebisch, the author of the concept of “peripheral development”, which was the theoretical basis of ECLA’s activities.
The most vivid and strongly specific features of the culture of Argentina, which determine its historical appearance, manifested themselves in literature and music.
The most outstanding works of literature of Argentina received a continental and world resonance, and their authors became world-famous. Among them are: E. Echeverria (1805-54, the most significant works are the poem “The Captive”, the artistic and journalistic essay “Slaughterhouse”), H.B. Alberdi (1810-84, books “Fundamentals”, “Crimes of War”), D.F. Sarmiento (1811-88, book “Civilization and Barbarism. The Life of Juan Facundo Quiroga”), H.R. Hernandez (1834-86, epic poem “Martin Fierro”), L. Lugones (1874-1938, collections of poems “Golden Mountains”, “Twilight in the Garden”, “Odes to the Centenary”, “Romances”, “Songs of the Hearth” and etc.), H.L. Borges (1899-1986, collections of short stories A General History of Infamy, The Garden of Forking Paths, Fictions, Aleph, Death and the Compass, The Doer; poetry collections The Heat of Buenos Aires, The Moon Opposite “,
Argentina is one of the leading countries in Latin America in terms of the level and intensity of musical life. Buenos Aires is home to one of the largest opera houses in the Western Hemisphere, the Colon Opera House. The most famous of a fairly large number of Argentine composers is A. Ginastera (1916-83). His work has received wide international recognition. Among the Argentine performing musicians who have gained worldwide fame are pianist M. Argerich (b. 1941), cellist A. Odnoposoff (b. 1917), guitarist M.L. Ani-do Gonzalez (b. 1907). Argentina is the birthplace of tango, a dance and a special musical genre that has gained worldwide popularity. The most famous tango performer was the Argentine singer and film actor K. Gardel (1890-1935).
The architecture of Argentina throughout its history is characterized by a contradictory combination of two trends: the desire to reproduce European architectural forms as accurately as possible and the search for a national architectural style. In con. 20th century Argentine architecture has received international recognition, and such representatives as E. Ambash and S. Pelli are among the most outstanding architects of the world in the 1990s.
Throughout the 20th century Argentina was at the forefront of theatrical life in Latin America. The leading playwrights of the country, whose work had a continental resonance, are: L. Barletta (1902-75), O. Dragun (1929-99), R. Kossa (b. 1934). Argentine cinema has also received international recognition. The leading directors, whose tapes received awards at international festivals, were F. Solanas, L. Torre Nilsson, L. Puenzo.