According to Educationvv, public spending on education exceeds 6% of GDP. Compulsory education lasts from 6 to 15 years of age. Education in primary, secondary and – since 1996 – higher education is free. Primary and secondary schools are parochial and receive financial support from the state. The second stage is represented by private and state general education and specialized vocational schools, the curriculum of which is designed for 5 years. Upon reaching the age of 15, students take an exam for the so-called. junior certificate. Those wishing to continue their education after 2 years receive a “certificate of graduation”, which entitles them to enter the university. There are four universities in Ireland. The oldest of them – Trinity College – was founded in 1591. Other universities are the National University of Ireland, University of Limerick and Dublin City University. Developed evening and correspondence education. Regional technical and technological colleges offer a wide range of applied sciences and the acquisition of related work skills, especially in the field of new technologies. 74% of young Irish people get knowledge at universities, 60% specialize in exact sciences and business.
The oldest Irish art is represented by carvings on megalithic monuments from 2500-2000 BC. Celtic art reached its zenith in the illustrated manuscripts The Book of Durrow (7th century) and The Book of Kells (8th century).
In painting of the 19th century. dominated by neoclassicism, romanticism and naturalism. At the end of the century, impressionism prevailed. The major artists of that era are Nathaniel Hohn (1831-1917), Walter Osborne (1859-1903), John Lavery (1881-1922), William Orlen (1878-1931). The first modernist experiences are associated with the names of Evie Hon (1894-1955) and Mani Jellett (1897-1994). The new trend was supported by the Irish Living Art Exposition, founded in 1943. Louis Le Broca, Patrick Scott, Michael Farrull and Robert Balla, Patrick Collins, Tony O’Malley, Camille Suter, Barry Cook worked in close contact with world trends in contemporary art.
Monumental sculpture of the 19th century. represented by the work of John Hogan (1800–58) and John Henry Foley (1819–74), who laid the foundations for a tradition that influenced the work of 20th-century masters. Oshina Kelly (1915-81), Seamus Murphy (1907-74), Hilary Heron (1923-77). Mention should also be made of the sculptors Brian King, John Bian, Michael Buffin, Michael Warren and Eiglish O’Connell.
Music has always been an important part of Irish culture. One of the famous early composers is Torlock O’Caroline (1670-1738), a representative of the culture of the bards. Modern classical music is represented by such influential figures as E. J. Potter (1918-80) and Gerald Victory (1921-95).
The literature of Ireland is known as the land of legends and fairy tales. From the 6th c. sagas about the deeds of Cuhalan and Fionn have come down to us. Reviving fiction in the Irish language, Patrick Pierce (1879–1916) and Porick O’Conaire opened it up to the world. Outstanding writers of our time are Martin O’Kine, Sean O’Riordan, Myra Wak an Toi, Liam O’Flaherty, Brendan Bian. Anglo-Irish literature also gave the world George Russell, George Moore. James Joyce, with his novels Ulysses and The Dubliners, is one of the most significant writers of the century. Playwrights include Oliver Goldsmith (1728-74), Richard Sheridan (1751-1816), Oscar Wilde (1854-1900), George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950). The novelist and playwright Samuel Beckett enjoys international recognition. Beckett, Shaw, Yeats and Heaney were awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature.
General information about Ireland
The official name is the Republic of Ireland. The unofficial name is the Emerald Island (Emerald Island). It is located in Western Europe and occupies 5/6 of the territory of the island of I. in the northern part of the Atlantic Ocean to the west of Great Britain. The area is 70.280 thousand km2, the population is 3.917 million people. (2002). The official languages are Irish (Gaelic) and English. The capital is Dublin (495.1 thousand people, with the nearest suburbs 1122.600 thousand people, 2002). National holiday – St. Patrick’s Day on March 17th. The monetary unit is the euro (before January 1, 1999 – the Irish pound).
Member of international organizations: UN (since 1955), EU (since 1973), IAEA, Council of Europe, OECD, OSCE, WTO, WHO, ILO, EBRD and a number of others.